Sign In | Register

JIAAP Abstracts 2002

Women Entrepreneurs: Their motivations, experiences and strategies for success
Mah Nazir Riaz, National Institute of Psychology, Centre of Excellence, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan)
2002, Jan - Jul; 28(1-2), 1-8

The study aimed at an investigation of psycho-social variables considered significant both at start-up as well as running and expansion of small business. The sample consisted of 100 Pakistani entrepreneurs selected from Peshawar, Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Female Entrepreneurial Questionnaire (Kaur, Rehman, Nasir & Khan, 1993) was used to collect data concerning nature of business, entrepreneurial experiences, motivations, problems, and strategies used by women for expansion of business. The findings reveal that majority of women (71%) have successfully achieved their objectives and are determind to continue their current business.

References :18

Assessment of health-related quality of life among cardiovascular disease patients
Wael Mustafa Fayez Mahmoud, Akbar Husain and M. Urooj Rabbani, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh
2002, Jan - Jul 28(1-2), 9-15

Health-related quality of life scale was administered on 140 coronary artery disease patients 105 myocardial infarction and 35 angina pectoris- and 60 essential hypertensive patients. These patients were drawn from the OPD of the Medicine Department, Institute of Medical Sciences, B.H.U., Varanasi. Results indicated that the cardivascular disease affect the health-related quality of life of patients in terms of psychological, physiological organizational and physical effects. Correlation coefficients indicating the rank differences between myocardial infarction and hypertensive patients, and angina pectoris and hypertensive patients were not found to be significant for personal and social effects.


Self-efficacy, learning and performance goal orientation as correlates of self-regulation
Amurty Gupta & S.P. Sinha, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Dayalbagh, Agra
2002, Jan - Jul 28(1-2), 17-23

The present study attempted to examine the relationship among self-efficacy, learning and preformance goal orientations and self-regulation among a sample of 150 undergraduates of Agra city. Generalized Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale by Jerusalem & Schwarzer, Learning and Performance Goal Orientation scale byBouffardet al. and State Metacognitive Inventory by O ‘Neil andAbedi were used as tools. Zero order correlation coefficients among the study variables showed positive correlation coefficient leading to the conclusion that there is a significant increase in self-regulation with the increase in levels of self-efficacy, learning and performance goal orientation. Multiple regression analysis showed a significant contribution of self-efficacy and learning goal orientation on self-regulation.

References : 28

Improving children’s handwriting: An operant model approach
VeenaA.S., Romate J. and Sudha Bhogle, Department of Psychology, Bangalore University, Bangalore
2002, Jan - Jul 28(1-2), 25-30

The present study was designed to evalute the effect of two types of intervention on improving the quality of handwriting among childern. A sample of 36 subjects with poor handwriting, studying in the II grade of an English medium school, falling in the age group of 7-9 years were chosen for the study.

A pre post follow-up design was employed. The subjects were randomly assigned to 3 groups: the control group (N=120) not subjected to any intervention programme, the experimental group I (N=12) subjected to the intervention without reinforcement and the experimental group 2 (N=12) who received intervention with reinforcement. The responses were reinforced using the variable ratio schedule. The reinforecements used were stars, toffees andverbalfeedback. A post assessment was done immediately after the intervention programme and a follow-up study was conducted two weeks after the termination of the intervention programme and after four months. The results indicate that, though both the experimental groups benefited from the intervention programme, the reinforced group performed better. Moreover, the experimental groups maintained the positive outcomes of the intervention over a period of time.

References : 9

Parental rearing styles of khasi adolescents
H.K. Laldinpuie and L.N. Singh Mizoram University, Aizawl
2002, Jan - Jul 28(1-2), 31-37

255 Khasi adolescents (121 boys and 137 girls) served as subjects for the study on psychometric adequacy of the EMBU-A, a perceived parental rearing style questionnaire. Item-total coefficients of correlation (and the relationship between the items) and the reliability coefficients (range and average Cronbach alphas, and split-half relability) of Rejection (R), Emotional Warmth (EW), Overprotection (OP) and Favouring Subject (FS) scales of EMBU-A emerged to be substantial. The reliability coefficients emerged to be highest for R scale, followed by EWand FS scales and least for OP scale. This uniform pattern emerged over the levels of analyses : boys and girls for fathers and mothers separately, and over the level of ‘parental sex’ (fathers and mothers with sex of the adolescents pooled under each). Interscale relationship of EMBU-A revealed (i) significant negative coefficient of correlation between R and EW scales, (ii) significant negative coefficient of correlation between EW and FS scales and (Hi) moderately positive coefficient of correlation between the other scales in all probable combinations over the levels of analyses. 2x2 ANOVA (2 adolescent sex x 2 parental sex) with repeated measures on the last component manifested significant ‘parental sex’ effects on EW and OP scales. Post-hoc mean comparisons in significant parent effects on EW and OP scales revealed more EWand OP from mothers than from fathers. The results have been discussed in the light of literature on parenting styles across cultures.

References : 14

Effect of impulsivity on attentional processes
Nov Rattan Sharma, Amrita Yadav and Poonam, M.D. University, Rohtak
2002, Jan - Jul 28(1-2), 39-44

Attention may refer to the clarity of consciousness in an .introspective sense. The process of attention divides our field of experience into a focus and a margin of attention. There may be many factors influencing the attentional process but personality of the person perceiving the stimulus is of great importance. In the present study attentional processes have been studied in the light of the level of impulsivity which is a trait of extroversion.

For the purpose, an experiment was conducted on high implusive (n=25) and low impulsive (n=25) subjects. High impulsive and low impulsive groups were selected out of a sample of 320 senior secondary students studying in various schools of Rohtak city with the age range of 15-18 years. Eysenck Personality Inventory (Hindi version) was administered to these students in small batches and their impulsivity scores were measured. On the basis of the score high impulsive and low impulsive subjects were indentifted. For attentional processes measures on attentability (span of attention and distraction of attention), concentration (cancellation) and flexibility (comparison) tasks were taken. It was observed that the ability to attend to a stimulus is higher in low impulsive subjects compared to high impulsive subjects.

References: 9

Probelm students and their value pattern in Bangladesh
Tania Rahman, Institute of Social Welfare and Research, University of Dhaka, Dhaka
2002, Jan - Jul 28(1-2), 45-48

The purpose of this study was to investigate the value systems of the problem students who have characterised as irregular, non-attentive and creating disturbance in the class, etc. The problem students (N=40) were compared with a group of equal number of normal students on value scale of Allport et al (1970). It was found that the problem students were aesthetic values compared to normal students. From this study it may be concluded that the problem students demonstrated such activities possibly due to other value differences compared to the social norm. It is hypothsised that counselling may be helpful in order to improve such behaviour by modifying their values.

References: 6

A study of the effect of maternal employment on adjustment,
ego-stength and anxiety of children
Shamshad Hussain, Former Univ. Prof. & Head Deptt. of Psychology, Patna University, Patna
FarhatJabin, Research scholar & Ad-hoc Lecturer, Magadh Manila College, Patna University, Patna.
2002, Jan - Jul 28(1-2), 49-56

In the present research an attempt was made to study the impact of the maternal employment on Adjustment, Anxiety and Ego-strength of children. The study was carried on by formulating various hypotheses. The study was conducted on 200 male high schools and undergraduate college level student population of Patna and its neighbouring places, by employing incidental -cum - purposive sampling technique. The important research tools used for measuring personality variables comprised of Mohsin-Shamshad adaptation of Bell Adjustment Inventory, Sinha Anxiety Scale and Hasan Ego-strength Scale. The findings on the whole indicate that the difference between the effect of maternal employment on different types of adjustment and ego-strength of the children of working and non-working mothers is not statistically significant even at .05 level of confidence. However, the difference between the children of working and non-working women in respect of the magnitude of Anxiety (mean scores 39.010 and 32.270 respectively) has been statistically found to be significant at. 01 level of confidence (t- value 2.91). This supports the hypothesis. The findings of the present research will help the counsellors, social workers, parents and the researchers.

References: 28

Urban quality of Kokata City: A study on students’ perception
Swaha Bhattacharya, Jayeeta Majumdar and S.K. Dasgupta, Department of Applied Psychology, Calcutta University, Kolkata
2002, Jan - Jul 28(1-2), 57-62

Kolkata City has a distinctive atmosphere or flavour, as had been experienced by many, that differentiates it subjectively from other cities. The city was described by many as alive, happy, exciting, entertaining and not depressing but was also narrated by some others as old, cheap, decaying, flfthy, vulgar and dangerous - such antagonistic views about Kolkata need clarification involving sufficient amount of empirical correspondences. Accordingly, the present investigation has been designed to understand the nature or degree of the urban qualities of the Kolkata City as peerceived by two groups of post-graduate students - one residents of the Kolkata City (N=85) and the other non-residents, but residing at the P.G. Hostels located in the Kolkata city (N=90). A specially designed Perceived Urban Quality Questionnaire was used to collect data. The findings reveal that ‘resident group of students of Kolkata City perceived more unfavourable aspects of urban quality than the ‘non-resident group of students’. Again, the students, irrespective of their groups, expressed their satisfaction on recreational and cultural provisions and activities as well as in shopping facilities while they expressed their dissatisfaction on some aspects like crowded environment, pollution, traffic jam, housing problems and poor employment potentials.

References: 12

Quality work life and job involvement inbank employees
Waheeda Khan, Meena Osmany & M. Waseem, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi
2002, Jan - Jul 28(1-2), 63-68

Studies show that individuals have unique sets of standards for evaluation quality of work settings. Hence, one may assume that the work environment in U.P. and Delhi banks will have different influences on the Quality of Work Life & Job Involvement of their employees, Thus, Sinha and Saeed’s (1980) QWl inventory (having 17 dimensions) and Lodhal & Kejner’s (1965) job involvement questionnaire were administered on a sample of 120 clerks and officers, randomly drawn from different nationalised banks of U.P. and Delhi state. Results indicated that substantial differences exist between bank employees of U.P. and Delhi on the QWl, dimensions of economic benefits, Mental state, union management relations, supervisory relationships and general life satisfaction. Further mean comparisons between clerks and officers of the two states revealed that clerks of Delhi reported more economic benefits in comparison to U.P. clerks but the latter group have better union management relations, good relations with their supennsons, higher level of self respect and greater general life satisfaction, as compared to clerks of Delhi state. Although U.P. offcers reported more job involvenment but depressive fellings were significantly higher in them. It may be concluded that the meaning derived from QWL may be culture and context specific and it plays an important orle in determining the overall well-being of any industrial organization.

References: 18

Impact of individualism-collectivism and entrepreneurial status on entrepreneurial success
Rachana Chattopadhyay & Anjali Ghosh, Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata
2002, Jan - Jul 28(1-2), 69-74

Entrepreneurship has played a significant role in the economic development of a country. The aim of the present study is to determine the impact of individualism-collectivism and entrepreneurial status on entrepreneurial success. To measure individualism-collectivism attitude we have administered 16 items individualism collectivism construct developed by Triandis et. al (1998) along with 7 point summated rating scale. We have measured entrepreneurial success from two angles - on the basis of profit and on the basis of turnover. Result shows that individualistic attitude along with entrepreneurial status are highly responsible for becoming a successful entrepreneur in Indian cultural set up.

References : 13

An experimental study of semantic and phonemic information in relation to explicit and implicit memory and prolonged deprivation
Nusrat Ali Khan and Saeeduzzafar, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh
2002, Jan - Jul 28(1-2), 75-80

Present investigation was intended to determine the effect of phonemic and semantic similarity of task and prolonged deprivation on implicit and explicit memory. A 2 x 2 factorial design was used for implicit as well as explicit memory 80 male subject (40 deprived and 40Non-deprived) participated in the experiment. Results of the study revealed that phonemic similarity of the task as compared to semantic similarity has more pronounced deterimental effect on implicit memory whereas semantic similarity as compared to phonemic similarity of task has greater determinant effect on explicit memory. Deprivation impair explicit memory but not implicit memory. Findings of the study were discussed in the light cognitive functioning of deprived and non-deprived subjects.

References : 14

Women entrepreneurs in food processing enterprises - factors and problems
R. Ganesan, Dilbagh Kaur, R.C. Maheshwari & Sujata Satapathy, Centre for Rural Devlopment and Appropriate Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi
2002, Jan - Jul 28(1-2), 81-88

Women entrepreneurs were the ray of hope in bringing economic development. The need for social change and economic development in any developing country is possible only through the effective involvement of-women workforce into it. But, when we spell on women entrepreneurship, motivational factors and facilitative factors become governing factors, which help them to emerge as an entrepreneur. The food processing enterprises were considered as the most suitable economic activity for women. However, commercialization of this in the open market may totally change their role functioning, and career options may demand to inculcate a lot of risk-taking behaviour. Therefore, choosing a career to establish their own enterprises for own identity and sharing financial responsibilities could involve many factors and problems. This study was an attempt to explore the motivational, compulsory, facilitative and opportunistic factors along with the problems faced by some 32 women entrepreneurs in Bangalore and Chennai while they started their enterprises. A self-constructed interview schedule was used to find out the underlying factors (motivational, compulsory, facilitative and opportunistic) and problems (general problems and problems in enterprising (marketing, personnel and familial) and obstacles (start-ups)) which women entrepreneurs encountered in the beginning stage in their enterprises associated with women entrepreneurs. The results showed that women entrepreneurs perceived education and training as the most important parameters for their entry into the entrepreneurial world.

References: 10

Relationship of job satisfaction to certain adjustment variables
Laiju, S. & 8. Raju, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Thiruvananthapuram
2002, Jan - Jul 28(1-2), 89-92

The present investigation is an attempt to understand the relationship of job satisfaction to certain adjustment variables viz., family, health, emotional, social and occupational adjustment. The sample of the study was drawn from the employees of central, state and private sectors of Kollam and Thiruvanathapuram districts of Kerala state. A sample of 40 subjects were taken from each sector (central, state and private) so that a total 120 subjects were drawn. The study made use of Job Satisfaction Scale and An Adjustment inventory. The results indicate that there exists positive correlation between job satisfaction and different adjustment variables.

References: 6

Memory loss induced by pre-training ECS a result of delayed retention test
Promila Batra and Meenu M.D. University, Rohtak
2002, Jan - Jul 28(1-2), 93-98

Present research was undertaken to study the memory loss induced by pre-training ECS after 2hrs. and 24 hrs. retention intervals. A sample of 100 male albino rats about 3 month old, weighing 160 + 10 gms was used in the experiment that was based on multi-group design to compare the retention latencies 2 hrs. and 24 hrs. after pre-training ECS. Results of the study revealed that the subjects tested after 24 hrs. were amnesic and those tested 2 hrs. later had an intact retention.

References: 26

Effect of extraversion on correct detection of automated task failures
Hari Om Sharma and Indramani L. Singh, Cognitive Science Laboratory, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi
2002, Jan - Jul 28(1-2), 99-109

One hundred twenty non-pilot subjects performed flight simulated task, comprising system-engine monitoring, tracking and fuel resource management. Tracking and fuel management tasks were performed manually, whereas system monitoring task was automated. Subjects were classified as introverts and extroverts based on EP1 scores and they were asked to detect system-engine malfunctions if system failed to detect under automation mode. All subjects received either a short of 30-min or long of 60-min manual training prior to their participation in 60-min static or variable automation reliability conditions. Performance in terms of correct and incorrect detection of automation failures, and speed of response was recorded for each participant as dependent measures. Results revealed that introverts were less susceptible to complacency than extroverts on monitoring the automation failures. This may be due to the fact that introverts have higher cortical arousal which protects them from automated complacency.

References: 23

Characteristics of alcoholics with poor treatment outcome
Amool R. Singh & Archana Singh, Ranchi Institute of Neuropsychiatry and Allied Science, Ranchi
R. Mehta & K.R. Banerjee, VIMHANS, New Delhi
2002, Jan - Jul 28(1-2), 111-116

The problem of high rate of relapse following treatment of alcohol dependent cases has been a matter of long-standing concern to the researchers and clinicians for years. There are various approaches for treating the alcoholics. The outcome of any approach is affected by numerous variables. The present study examines the possible characteristics of the clients associated with the positive outcome of the treatment. The finding suggest that the patients \who failed to respond to the treatment were significantly more from nuclear families, with monthly income less than Rs. 2500 per months, family H/o alcohol misuse and H/o alcohol misuse for more than 5 years.

References: 22

Improvement of depressed students performance on a spelling test after attributional retraining
Vandana Sharma & Vidhu Mohan, Punjabi University, Patiala
2002, Jan - Jul 28(1-2), 117-120

Attributional retraining was devised to help depressed students improve their performance in the subsequent task, which was a spelling test. The present study examined the effectiveness of attribution retraining technique by manipulating two levels of induced attribution conditions, i.e., external and internal. Subjects were college students (N=80) in the age group of 18-21 years, randomly selected from two different colleges of Patiala. Findings of the experiment show that externalization of failure led to an enhanced performance on spelling test. Gender was found to be an insignificant factor. Experimentally induced attributions made the depressive’ dysfunctional attributions functional and made them perform better in the subsequent task.

References: 15

A comparative study of negative personality characteristics among diabetics and
Babita Gupta, P.K. Mona & Surila Agarwal Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Agra
2002, Jan - Jul 28(1-2), 121-124

The present study was designed to compare negative personality characteristics of diabetics and non-diabetics. The sample consisted of 100 subjects including 50 diabetics and 50 non-diabetics in the age range of 40 to 55 years. Ex-post-facto research design was used. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) was used to measure the personality characteristics of diabetics and non-diabetics. Results indicated that there are marked differences in the personality characteristics of diabetics and non-diabetics. Diabetics are more psychologically disturbed than non-diabetics.

References: 9

Psychological risks for coronary heart disease (CHD) : A case - control analysis
Latha, University of Madras, Chennai
2002, Jan - Jul 28(1-2), 125-130

The focus of this study is to evaluate the relative risk of negative psychological states in predicting the cardiac status. Using a case - control design on a random sample of 186 cardiac cases and 138 controls the biomedical and psychological risks were evaluated. A single discriminant function characterised by Trait Anger and Hostility emerged. This function could positively discriminate the cases from controls. Further, the logistic Multiple Regression analysis revealed that higher Trait Anger scores (<22) and high Hostility score (<9) significantly increases the risk for the coronary status. The relative risk for psychological variable increased when all other traditional factors were statistically controlled.

References: 17

Tips to bang on avoidance behaviour - an experience with railway officers
S.M. Khan Psycho-Technical Directorate, RDSO, Lucknow
P.C. Mishra, Lucknow University, Lucknow
2002, Jan - Jul 28(1-2),131-138

This article discusses the results on the basis of a psychological Intervention programme carried out on 117 railway officers at Railway Staff College, Vadodra and at Indian Railway Institute of Transport Management (IRITM), Lucknow to assess the primary motivates (achievement, influence, control, dependence, extension and affiliation) motivates their behaviour in work settings. The result indicated that the need for both group of officers on achievement was dominant and dormant (sleeping) on control. The Operating Effectiveness Quotient (OEQ) on achievement motive was 73% and 66% in case of Senior Railway Officers and Probationary Railway Officers respectively. The OEQ on control motive was 56% for both groups.