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JIAAP Abstracts 1999

Beyond maslow : an Indian perspective of need-hierarchy
Daftuar CN; Sharma R, M.S University of Baroda, Baroda.
1998 Jan-Jul.; 24(1-2): 1-8

Human motivation has been extensively studied and several motivational theories are in existence in contemporary Western psychology. Emergence of Indian Psychology which has its roots in Indian philosophy has been slow, but is now gaining acceptance in west owing to its distinct life orientation. In the present paper, authors have tried to integrate the Maslow’s theory of motivation with various Indian ideas by picking up appropriate concepts from vast Indian literature like Gita, Upanishads and Sankhya. Some empirical data have been generated to develop a model showing how Maslow’s hierachical needs levels can be inferred through Indian concept of personality based on Sankhya system.

KEYWORDS: Motivation; Human Development; Psychological Tests; Psychological Theory; Human; Adult

References: 9

Trait anxiety and anger expression in patients with essential hypertension.
Ghosh SN; Sharma S, H.P Universirty, Shimla
1998 Jan-Jul.; 24(1-2): 9-14

The role of anxiety and anger in Essential Hypertension (EH) and Surgical/Orthopaedic patients (N=40 each) was studied by administering the Hindi version of Spielberger’s T-Anxiety scale of STAl and Anger Expression (AX) Scale in clinical setting. Patients of both the groups i.e., EH and surgical/orthopaedic were male, married out-patients with mean age of 46.53 and 40.38 years respectively. These patients had urban middle class background, a minimum of high school education and no other secondary complications. The findings are: when compared to the surgical/orthopaedic controls. EH patients reported not only higher trait anxiety but also higher frequency of anger regardless of the direction of anger expression. When dimensions of anger were considered, EH patients reported higher active suppression of angry feelings (Ax/Con) than their surgical/orthopaedic counterparts. However, no significant difference was observed on aggressive behaviour directed towards other people or object in the environment. This study highlights the association of negative emotion (anxiety and anger) in the patients with essential hypertension.

KEYWORDS: Hypertension/PX; Hypertension/PP; Psychological Tests; Psychophysiology; Anxiety; Depression; Human

References: 36

Effect of work culture upon stress, strain and coping strategies of managers.
Sandhu K; Das I, Dayal Bagh Educational Institute, Agra.
1998 Jan-Jul.; 24(1-2): 15-18

In the present study the effect of the type of work culture upon the stress, strain and coping strategies of managers is studied. A sample of 52 managers was taken from Maruti Udyog Limited. Results show that soft work culture group experiences significantly more (p less than . 01) stress and Strain in comparison to Synergetic work culture group and the synergetic work culture group is significantly better (p less than. 01) in coping strategies in comparison to soft work culture group. It is concluded that organization should possess Synergetic Work Culture as it is not only good for the productivity but also for the mental and physical well being of the individuals.

KEYWORDS: Stress, Psychological/PX; Adaptation Psychological; Occupational Health; Administrative Personal/PX; Organizational Culture; Human

References: 6

Supervision and organizational effectiveness : role conflict as a moderator.
Singh AP, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi.
1998 Jan-Jul.; 24(1-2): 19-25

A number of theorists have attempted to explain leadership behaviour. The effects of leadership behaviour may be moderated by such factors as characteristics of the individuals being supervised. Keeping this trend in mind in the present undertaking an attempt has been made to examine the moderator effects of role conflict on the relationship of supervisory behaviour with subordinates’ job satisfaction and productivity. The results of the present studies indicated: 1) The role conflict has partial moderating effects on the relationship between supervisory behaviour and job satisfaction, 2) The role conflict does not exert its significant impact upon the relationship of supervisory behaviour and subordinates’ productivity, 3) The production and job satisfaction scores are highest in low production-oriented and high on employee-oriented category of supervision.

KEYWORDS: Interprofessional Relations; Conflict (Psychology); Role; Job Satisfaction; Efficiency, Organizational; Leadership; Human

References: 9

Role conflict : the spill over effect.
Mishra P; Bajpai V, Lucknow University, Lucknow.
1998 Jan-Jul.; 24(1-2): 27-31

The present research was carried out to study the spill over effect of inter-role conflict experienced by women on their marital relations and interpersonal communication. The study was conducted on 220 higher secondary teachers of Lucknow, U.P., between the age range of 17 to 40 years. Regression analysis revealed that conflict between multiple roles certainly has spill-over effects penetrating into their marital life but the extent varied with the area of marital relations.

KEYWORDS: Interpersonal Relations; Conflict (Psychology); Marital Status; Women, Working/PX; Mothers/PX; Regression Analysis; Human; Female

References: 10

Perceived need satisfaction in executives of public sector organizations.
Ghosh A, Indian Statistical Institute, Calcutta.
1998 Jan-Jul.; 24(1-2): 33-36

The study was conducted on 56 executives (22 middle and 34 lower) of two public sector organisations located in the eastern part of india. The objective was to see whether there is any perceived difference in the need satisfaction of middle and lower level executives. It was observed that deficiency in need fulfillment is more pronounced in lower level executives than in middle level executives, specially in the need areas of esteem, autonomy and self-actualisation. The two areas of greatest importance were a higher order need, self-actualization and a lower-order need, security. In general, both in lower and middle management position the most critical need hierarchy areas was observed to be the area of self-actualisation both with respect to prime importance and deficiency in need fulfillment. It was also observed that the psychological needs are not so much adequate to predict the managerial success of an executive.

KEYWORDS: Employment/PX; Job Satisfaction; Administrative Personnel/PX; Organizational Culture; Human; Male; Adult; Middle Age

References: 12

Perceived importance of needs in relation to job level and personality make-up.
Rao PUB; Kulkarni AV, Banking Service Recruitment Board, Lucknow.
1998 Jan-Jul.; 24(1-2): 37-42

The contention of Alderfer’s ERG theory that the three basic needs, existence, relatedness and growth can operate simultaneously as motivators was supported in this study. This was evidenced by positive and significant inter-correlations among these three needs in terms of their perceived importance for 424 bank employees (212 officers and 212 clerks). As hypothesized, officers attached greater importance to growth needs than did clerks who in turn attached greater importance to existence needs than did officers. However, the two groups did not differ significantly in the degree of importance attached to relatedness needs. Further, the perceived importance of relatedness needs correlated negatively with introversion and positively with empathy for officers, and with one exception of introversion for clerks. The perceived importance of growth needs correlated positively with self confidence and need for achievement, but negatively with pessimism for officers as well as clerks, with one exception involving pessimism for the latter group.

KEYWORDS: Personality Development Achievement; Motivation; Human; Adult; Middle Age

References: 9

Correlates of equity perception of managers.
Sharma A; Kumar N, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi.
1998 Jan-Jul.; 24(1-2): 43-48

The relationship between inequitable perception of various job aspects (other than pay) and the nature of referents has generally been a neglected field in equity theory research. The present paper is an attempt to study the relationship of some personality variables (age and education) to individual’s perception of various aspects of his job. Inequity situations in both the directions have been analyzed and found to be related to these variables. Self-concept and age education have shown positive relationship with inequity perception. Analysis of referents reveled that the past job was most frequently used referents by managers.

KEYWORDS: Administrative Personnel/PX; Job Satisfaction; Self Concept; Human; Male

References: 26

A total for measuring achievement motivation.
Uma J; Kamalanabhan TJ, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras.
1998 Jan-Jul.; 24(1-2): 49-57

This paper focuses on the development of a self-report measure of adult achievement motivation. As a first step, a pool of 48 forced-choice stimulus items was constructed to reflect the results of those empirical studies whose findings differentiated among subjects with high or low achievement motivation. A pilot study was conducted to finalise the items. The questionnaire was administered to a sample of 206 adults. Principal components analysis was used to initiate an investigation of the dimensionality of the empirically keyed items. The scree plot was then used to determine the salient dimensions extracted from the components analysis. This procedure indicated that 10 factors appeared relevant, which explained for 69 percent of the original variance. Cronbach Alpha values for the factors were found to range from 0.55 to 0.87. The testretest reliability was later found to be 0.78. The ten salient dimensions were found to be task orientation, perserverance, anticipatory behaviour, competitiveness, test taking behaviour, reaction to success/failure, future orientation, independence, rigidity and involvement.

KEYWORDS: Motivation; Psychological Theory; Factor Analysis, Statistical; Achievement; Questionnaires; Human

References: 26

Quality and quantity of mental health.
Verma SK; Nehra A; Puri A, G M C & PGIMER, Chandigarh.
1998 Jan-Jul.; 24(1-2): 59-62

Mental health is a broad and vague concept. Accurate and comprehensive assessment of mental health is difficult. We have not even fully understood the concept, its comprehensive definition, its constituents, their relative independence if any and the whole organization. We do not know, how the presence, absence, degree of one constituent part or a change in it, affects other constituents or the mental health of an individual as such. Its measurement-and its full understanding is a long journey indeed. Much has been achieved, more needs to be achieved in this important area-particularly to its quality and quantitative aspects.

KEYWORDS: Mental Health Services/OG; Mental Health; Mental Disorders; Human

References: 5

A study of organizational health and organizational commitment among industrial employees.
Patel MK, Saurashtra University, Rajkot.
1998 Jan-Jul.; 24(1-2): 63-67

This study investigated the relationship between perceived organizational health and organizational commitment. One hundred employees from a private sector manufacturing organization located in Rajkot were administered Mile’s organizational Health Scale, Mowday’s Organizational Commitment Scale and a Personal Data Sheet. The results revealed significant and positive correlation between overall organizational health and organizational commitment. Further skilled staff perceived more favourably the overall health of their organization and were also more committed to the organization than the workers. In case of skilled staff high organizational health perceivers were found to have better perceived organizational commitment than low organizational health perceivers.

KEYWORDS: Job Satisfaction; Employment/PX; Personnel Loyality; Attitude; Organizational Culture; Human

References: 25

A study of mental health and job satisfaction among industrial employees.
Jashi GR, Saurashtra University, Rajkot.
1998 Jan-Jul.; 24(1-2): 69-72

The study aims to find out the relation between mental health and job-satisfaction among 200 industrial employees of private organizations. The employees of different groups identified on the basis of some selected variables (namely age, work-experience, monthly income and total family members) were compared with their mental health index. Mental health analysis questionnaire (MHAQ) and Bray Field Rothe job satisfaction scale were administered on the subjects. A significant correlation was found between job satisfaction and mental health of the industrial employees. Mental health was found to be negatively correlated with different age-group of the employees. While mental health was found to be correlated among the inter-groups of the employees identified on the basis of selected variables, no significant differences in mental health are found on age, work-experiences, monthly income and total family members of the employees.

KEYWORDS: Mental Health; Job Satisfaction; Occupational Health; Industry; Human; Age Factors

References: 7

A study of socio-personal variables and job satisfaction of LIC employes.
Bhatt DJ, Saurashtra University, Rajkot.
1998 Jan-Jul.; 24(1-2): 73-77

The present study aimed to find out mean difference between the LIC Employees’ Sociopersonal variables and their job satisfaction. For this purpose a sample of 282 employees (Male=242 & Female=40) was randomly selected from different cities and town of Rajkot district of Gujarat state. For studying the job satisfaction a scale adapted and standardized by Bhatt was used. The results indicated significant mean difference between the LIC employees, Sociopersonal variables viz. Sex, Age Marital status, Educational level, Length of service, Monthly income and their job satisfaction.

KEYWORDS: Job Satisfaction; Age Factors; Sex Factors; Educational Status; Socioeconomic Factors; Human; Male; Female

References: 23

Forgetting of word associates in relation to racall interval.
Singh S; Panda SN; Upmanyu VV, Directorate of Education, Govt. of N.C.T. of Delhi.
1998 Jan-Jul.; 24(1-2): 79-82

The present study examined the relation between forgetting and emotionality by selecting emotional and neutral words matched on response entropy. Two independent samples of 30 males and 30 females served as subjects. 20 emotional and 20 neutral words balanced for response entropy were selected from the Kent-Rosanoff Word Association Test. The results revealed that the recall of associates to emotional words relative to associates of neutral words is not a function of the length of the recall interval. Forgetting was greater for the associates of the emotional words at both short and long retention interval. The results are compatible with idea of a persistent emotional inhibition effect on memory, as suggested by the psychoanalytic concept of repression.

KEYWORDS: Word Association Tests; Emotions; Human; Male; Female

References: 11

Hue and variation in critical flicker fusion
Batra P; Urvashi; Muhar IS, M.D. University, Rohtak
1998 Jan-Jul.; 24(1-2): 83-86

60 subjects were exposed to six different color environments (10x6). to study the variation in levels of critical flicker fusion (CFF) under various hues. The Ss worked on a very simple task in various color environments for 15 minutes. The before and after measures of CFF were taken. The galvanic skin response (GSR) of the Ss was also recorded as an index of stress. It was observed that darker colors like red and dark pink produce a state of high arousal and light colors (light grey and white) produce a low level of arousal. Consequently these hues decrease the levels of CFF. E has interpreted these results in terms of stress variation due to different hues.

KEYWORDS: Color Perception/PH; Flicker Fusion; Human; Male; Female; Adult

References: 7

Role of sex, imageability, vivid-unvivid print advertising in consumer involvement.
Narchal R; Handa M, Lady Shri Ram College, University of Delhi, New Delhi.
1998 Jan-Jul.; 24(1-2): 87-91

The present study has made an attempt to investigate the role of vivid-unvivid print advertising and gender in consumer involvement with the advertisements. Using a multistage sampling technique, 20 vivid (10 male, 10 female) imagers were finally selected. They were presented with three mock advertisements (vivid/unvivid presentations) of ‘television’ ‘wrist watch’ and soap’ to indicate their involvement on Zaichkiowsky’s PIL. Results indicate that vivid and unvivid imagers differ significantly in their involvement. Subjects have also considered product attributes to be important in involvement with the advertisements.

KEYWORDS: Advertising; Attitude; Imagery (Psychotherapy); Television; Role Playing; Sex Factors; Human; Male; Female

References: 11

The impact of maternal employment on perceived parental behaviour and self concept of Indian adolescents.
Deka N; Kakkar A, Indraprastha College for Women, University of Delhi, Delhi.
1998 Jan-Jul.; 24(1-2): 93-98

The present study investigates the impact of maternal employment on different indices of Parental behaviour and self-concept of adolescent first-born offspring of 16-20 years, belonging to the upper middle class Indian families. 160 mother-child dyads (80 with mother employed and 80 with non-employed) were administered Parental Acceptance/Rejection Questionnaires, perceieved Parental Conflict Scale and Self-concept Scale in two sessions. A two-way analysis of variance was done to determine the differential and interactional effects of maternal employment and sex on the different behavioural indices of the subjects. Coefficients of correlation were used to study the relationship between perceived parental warmth and self-concept. Results reveal that there is a significant difference in the child rearing quality of employed Vs. non-employed mothers. Maternal employment had no impact on the self-concept of adolescents where as perceived parental warmth and parental conflict did effect the self-concept scores.

KEYWORDS: Women, Working/PX; Father-Child Relations; Mother-Child Relations; Paternal Behavior; Employment; Self Concept; Adolescence; Child; Human

References: 13

Environmental schematization in men and womenn and its relation to certain personality variables.
Gupta U; Gupta BS, Department of Basic Principles, Faculty of Ayuraveda, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005.
1998 Jan-Jul.; 24(1-2): 99-104

This study examined environmental schematization in men and women, its relation to three standardized personality measures namely internal locus of control, impulsivity and sociability, and sex differences on these personality variables. Two measures of environmental schematization, degree of ‘personalization’ and degree of ‘ social emphasis’, were employed. Two hundred subjects, 100 men and 100 women, provided data for the study. The study supports the following conclusions: (1) Women percieve the environment in more personalized and social terms, while men view it in relatively impersonal and asocial manner; (2) Men, relative to women, score high on the impulsivity scale, and women, relative to men, score high on the sociability scale;(3) Men and women do not differ on the internal locus of control; (4) Locus of control is unrelated to environmental schematization; (5) Impulsivity is positively related to both measures of environmental schematization in men and women for the contemporaneous environment; but this relationship is mild for the childhood environmental schematization.

KEYWORDS: Internal-External Control; Social Environment; Personality; Human; Male; Female

References: 23

Selective attention under conditions of varied demands, personal space and social density.
Sinha SP; Alka; Rishi P; Vibha, Department of Psychology, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Agra.
1998 Jan-Jul.; 24(1-2): 105-108

The study aimed to investigate the effect of processing demands, density and personal space on recall performance. 240 students of 7th class from Agra city served as subjects. A 2x2x2 design (High and Low processing demands; High and low social density; far and close personal pace) was used. Results revealed that recall performance was adversely affected by high processing demands as well as high density. " Far" personal space subjects showed most performance decrements in high density condition for recall task, more than any other subject did. Three-way interaction was also found to be significant for recall performance.

KEYWORDS: Personal Space; Crowding; Social Behavior; Human; Male; Female; Adult; Adolescence

References: 14

A study of predictors of performance of hockey players.
Ali J, Department of Physical Health and Sports Education, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh.
1998 Jan-Jul.; 24(1-2): 109-112

It has been suggested by the experts that physical fitness, development of skill and tactics together with certain demographic variables influence the performance of athletes. The present investigation was designed to investigate predictors of performance of hockey players. The study was conducted during U.P. Inter-Varsity Hockey Championship (1994). Information regarding tenure of participation, level of participation, duration of training, parent’s education, father’s profession, income, sports background and parent’s encouragement for the game were considered as the predictors of performance. The performance of players was rated on a 10-point scale by a panel of 3 experts during the tournament. Data was collected from 224 hochey players of 14 Universities participating in the tournament. 56 high performance were found out on the basis of Q-3 value of experts ratings. Multiple Regression Analysis was used to analyse the data. The results indicate that the tenure of participation, duration of training, parent’s education and father’s profession emerged as predictors of performance of Hockey Players.