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JIAAP Abstracts 1993

Aditya SM; Sen AK, Department of Psychology. University of Delhi, Delhi-110007, India
  1993 Jan-Jul; 19(1-2): 1-6


The present research was carried out to study the job stressors and anxieties which affect both male and female executives, and also to make a comparison between the two groups. Sample consisted of 80 male and 80 female middle-level executives working in three public-sector undertakings. The tools which were applied to them included the Organizational Role Stress Scale, Job Anxiety Scale and Bem Sex Role Inventory. Results showed that male and female executives differed significantly on role ambiguity, role conflict, inter-role distance, future prospects, human relations at work, femininity and masculinity dimensions. Male executives with a masculine sex-role orientation faced greater job stress and anxiety than females possessing an androgynous personality. Result was discussed in terms of greater reluctance to self disclose among men, and different socialization patterns laid down for both men and women in Indian society.

KEYWORDS: Stress, Psychological/ET; Anxiety Disorders; Stress, Psychological/EP; Job satisfaction; Employment; Human; Male; Female; Comparative Study

References: 10

Dynamics of power and organizational climate 

  Malimath MV; Kumar GM, Shanthiniketan, 6, Palace Loop Road. Vasnthnagar,Bangalore-560052

1993 Jan-Jul; 19(1-2): 7-12

The aim of the study was to analyze the relationship between Organizational Climate and dynamics of power among 60 senior managers in a public sector organization. Managers in two levels (PS6 and PS7) were studied by a field survey method using questionnaires and self report inventories. Managers at a higher level (PS7) perceived more Responsibility, Reward and Structure. There was a significant difference in the percentage of sample having the three power Orientations. Structure, Warmth and Identity were were significantly related to the use of power strategy No. 4 ("Use data to convince others") in PS7 level (p<.05), while in the total group, only Warmth was significantly related to strategy No. 4 (p<.05). Managers with higher educational qualification perceived more conflict and there was a discrepancy between strategies most preferred and those actually utilized. The results are discussed stressing the need and importance of intergrating power issues with Organizational Development.

KEYWORDS: Organizational Culture; Administrative Personnel/PX; Interprofessional Relations; Questionnaires; Social Perception; Reward; Risk-Taking; Data Collection; Human

References: 11

Intelligence and personality differences among children from orphanages and intact families.

Tabassam W; Hamayun S, Department of Applied Psychology University of the Punjab,Lahore Pakistan

1993 Jan-Jul; 19(1-2): 13-20

This study was conducted to investigate the differences of personality structure and intelligence of the children living in orphanages and the children from intact families. The sample included a total of 160 subjects, consisting of 80 boy students from orphanage and 80 boy students from intact families, age ranged from 11 to 15 years. The children’s personality questionnaire (CPQ) and Otis Quick Scoring Mental Ability tests were used to obtain the personality structure and I. Q. score respectively, for orphanage and non-orphanage groups. Means were computed and Z-test was applied to check the significance of difference between intelligence level and personality structure of the two groups. Out of fourteen factors of CPQ, seven factors were found significantly higher in the children of intact families as compared to the children from orphanages. The orphans were also found to be at lower I. Q. range than the children from intact families.

KEYWORDS: Child Welfare; Child, Institutionalized/PX; Aid to Families with Dependent Children; Foster Home care; Presonality Development; Intelligence; Comparative Study; Human; Male; Female; Child; Adolescence

References: 14

Male/female differences in sex related myths.

Kumar P; Jadeja CB, Sardar Patel University Vallabh Vidyanagar

1993 Jan-Jul; 19(1-2): 21-24

The study undertakes to examine the differences if any in the number and nature of sex-related myths held by male and female college-going students. The sample comparised 60 male and 60 female students in the age bracket of 18-24 years. Sex Myth check-list, was used for studying the sex related myths of the subjects. The results showed that male students scored higher in male sexuality area than in the female sexuality area. The female students, on the other hand, showed better understanding about their own sexuality than about male sexuality. Attempt has been made to interpret the results in the existing socio-cultural context.

KEYWORDS: Adolescent Psychology; Gender Identity; Students/PX; Sex Education; Sex Characteristics; Sex Behavior; Attitude; Human; Male; Female; Adolescence; Adult

References: 7

Mental health status among rural and urban students : A comparative study.

Reddy SV; Nagarathanamma B, Department of Psychology, S. V. University Tirupati

1993 Jan-Jul; 19(1-2): 25-30

The present study was undertaken to investigate certain components of Mental Health status among rural and urban students from the point of identifying students, who have potential for future development of mental health problems. The school is considered second to the home in its influence on the development of children’s personality. The sample of study comprised 400 high school going children, out of which 200 were boys and 200 were girls. Their socio-economic status was taken into consideration. Mental Health status was measured by using Thorpe and Clark’s Mental Health analysis questionnaire (School Form). The results revealed no difference between urban and rural students, with regard to their mental health status. Boys and girls in the sample slightly differed from each other with regard to their mental health status, where as the socio-economic status did not contribute to their mental health status.

KEYWORDS: Adolescent Psychology; Health Status; Personality Development; Socioeconomic Factors; Rural Population; Urban Population; Comparative Study; Human; Male; Female; Adolescence; Adult

References: 12

Needs as determinants of orientation towards spirituality.

Zainuddin A, Opp. State Bank/Medical Branch, Sir Syed Nagar,Aligarh-202002

1993 Jan-Jul; 19(1-2): 31-38

The present study is an attempt towards a humanistic phenomenological study of spirituality. It is concerned with the relationship between spiritual orientation and psychogenic needs. The sample consisted of two hundred and twenty teachers of the various faculties of the Aligarh Muslim University. The sample was drawn randomly. The spiritual orientation inventory and Meenakshi personality inventory were used to test spirituality and psychological need respectively. Factor analysis of needs, and multiple regression analysis of exploring the relationship between needs and spirituality were carried out. Autonomy and aggression (Factor I) have been found to be the best negative predictors of spirituality. Spirituality could also be predicted by self actualization needs (Factor II).

KEYWORDS: Spiritualism/PX; Selfconcept; Motivation; Philosophy; Orientation; Human; Regression Analysis; Human; Adult; Middle Age

References: 12

Adjustment and Creativity

Hussain S; Sharan P, Singhi House, Professors Colony, Tripolia,Patna-800007

1993 Jan-Jul; 19(1-2): 39-46

The present investigation was undertaken to examine the relationship, if any, between creativity (verbal and non-verbal) and adjustment in different areas (Home, Health, Social, Emotional) as well as on the whole. Mehdi test of verbal and nonverbal creativity and Mohsin-Shamshad adaptation of Bell’s adjustment inventory were used. The data were treated by applying ‘t’ test, correlation and regression analysis. High creative group on verbal and non-verbal test of creativity significantly differed from the low creative group in respect of adjustment in different areas as well as on overall adjustment. High group obtained lower mean scores (indicating better adjustment) in comparison to its lower counterpart. The ‘r’ values between the scores on creativity and those on adjustment (areawise and overall) were negative and significant at .01 level of confidence. The correlation values ranged between minous .54 to minous .79 and from minous .57 to minous .55 for varbal and non-verbal creativity respectively. However, multiple regression analysis indicated positive contribution of home and overall adjustment only to the verbal and non verbal creativity.

KEYWORDS: Creativeness; Students/PX; Social Adjustment; Emotions; Regression Analysis; Personality Development; Human; Male

References: 30

Effect of epinephrine on learning under anaesthesia.

Darolia MK; Yadava A; Malhotra S, Department of Psychology, M.D.University,Rohtak-124001
1993 Jan-Jul; 19(1-2): 47-51

 A multi-group design with three groups (N is equal to 24) was utilized to examine whether E enables learning to occur in an anaesthetic state and to implicate the mechanism by which the memory modulatory effects of E are mediated. Water deprived animals (body weight reduced to 80 plus-minous 5 percent of original weight) were initially anaesthetized (50 mg/kg of Sodium Pentothal) E (250 ug/kg) or E plus insulin (250 ug/kg plus .05 units/kg) followed by training on a classical conditioning task. Retention was tested 2 days later by using a drinking suppression task. Results indicazte that leaning does occur under anaesthesia if the animals are pre-treated with E. Also, the mnemoactive effect of E is madiated via glucose.

KEYWORDS: Learning/DE; Memory/DE; Epinephrine/PD; Anesthesia; Animal; Rats

References: 12

Death sensitivity among drug addicts.

Maqbool S; Husain A, Department of Psychology, Aligarh MuslimUniversity,Aligarh-202 002

1993 Jan-Jul; 19(1-2): 53-56

Death Sensitivity Scale (DSS) was administered on 100 smack addicts and 50 alcoholics in-patients to measure their perception towards death. It was found that smack addicts in comparison to alcoholics had more death sensitivity. Smack addicts as compared to alcoholics scored high no ‘fact of death’ and ‘acceptance of death’ dimensions of DSS. Significant differences existed between smack addicts and alcoholics on frustration/depression, socially outgoing and socially withdrawn causation of addiction.

KEYWORDS: Substance-Related Disorders/MO; Cause of Death; Alcoholism Anxiety; Depression; Human; Adult

References: 6

Categorical organization as a function of locus of control, anxiety and ego-stress.

Alam K., Department of Psychology, Zakir Husain College, Jawahar Lal Nehru Marg,New Delhi-110002

                         1993 Jan-Jul; 19(1-2): 57-62


The present research was designed to determine the effects of locus of control, anxiety and ego-stress on categorical clustering of verbal materials. A 2x2x2 factorial design with two types of locus of control (external and internal) two levels of anxiety (high and low) and two pre-experimental stress instructions (ego-stress and reassurance) was employed. There were eight groups each having fifteen subjects. The results indicated that internal subjects exhibit superior clustering than those of external subjects, under both ego-stress and reassurance conditions. Subjects with high anxiety and stress have shown poorer clustering as compared to their low anxiety counterparts. However, reassurance condition facilitated the clustering performance of high anxiety subjects.

KEYWORDS: Students/PX; Memory; Anxiety; Verbal Learning; Ego; Human; Male

References: 25

A study of depression among convicts

Rai GC, Department of Psychology, M.L.S. University, Udaipur-313001,Rajasthan

1993 Jan-Jul; 19(1-2): 63-68

The study was conducted with the objective of investigating into the extent of depression among the different categories of convicts. Belonging to the different socio-economic backgrounds. The study was conducted on 480 convicts who were undergoing imprisonment in jails of Rajasthan. The study was based on ex-postfacto 3x2x2 factorial design experiment with three types of the nature of Crime (Murder, Assault and Theft). two conditions of Age (young and Old) and two levels of Socio-economic status (Upper and Lower). There were 40 subjects in each of the twelve groups representing the twelve cells as per the aforestated experimental design. Thus, making the total size of the sample as 480. Nature of crime, Age and Socio-economic status were the independent variables, and depression was the dependent variable in the study. Zung’s Self Rating Depression scale was administered to all the convicts. Three-way analysis of variance revealed that murderers were significantly less depressed than assailants who, in turn, were significantly less depressed than thieves : the young convicts were significantly less depressed than the old convicts : and the convicts of Upper and Lower soocio-economic status did not differ significantly in depression. The findings of the study have some practical implications for reducing depression among the different categories of the convicts.

KEYWORDS: prisoners/PX; Depression; Crime; Prisons; Analysis of Variance; Socioeconomic Factors; Human

References: 17

Stress in newspaper industry

Singh A, Central Labour Institute, N.S. Mankikar Marg. Sion. Bombay-400022

1993 Jan-Jul; 19(1-2): 69-75

The aim of present study is to measure the level of stress among workers working on Video Display Terminals (VDT) in newspaper establishments. The Occupational Stress Index and Critical Flicker Fusion Test (CFFT) were administered on 100 (50 VDT users and 50 non VDT users) newspaper industry employees. Results indicate that the level of stress is significantly high among the non VDT users group as compared to VDT user group, when measured on subjective measure of stress i.e., Occupational Stress Index. When the same groups were compared on objective measure i.e., Critical Flicker Fusion Test, it was found that VDT user group was having significantly higher stress than the compared group. the interpretation of present findings may be that employees who have got an opportunity to work on new technology with new work station, whereas non-users group (control) could not get such an opportunity and they have revealed their high subjective stress in OSI. Further, the introduction of computers in Indian Newspaper Industry is of recent origin and employees who have got an opportunity to work on new technology feel that the new assigned work is more challenging, interesting and of high status which in turn subsidies stress subjectively.

KEYWORDS: Stress, Psychological/PX; Occupational Diseass; Stress/DI; Mental Fatigue; Industry; Human; Male; Female

References: 16

Efficacy of a new inkblot technique in differentiating some clinical and normal groups.

Singh AR; Ahmad H; Shukla TR, Department of Clinical Psychology, Central Institute of Psychiatry, Kanke, Ranchi-834006

1993 Jan-Jul; 19(1-2): 77-80


In the present study, 10 new inkblot cards were administered on different clinical groups and normal controls. The analysis revealed that the different groups under study i.e. Schizophrenic, Major depressive disorders and normal subjects were significantly different on most of the six inkblot variables that were selected in the index study.

KEYWORDS: Ink Blot Tests/MT; Neurotic Disorders/DI; Depression; Schizophrenia/DI; Human; Male; Adult; Middle Age

References: 10

Effect of training in human resource development on leadership styles and effectiveness.

Mohan V, E-1/98, Sector-14, Chandigarh-160 014

1993 Jan-Jul; 19(1-2): 81-84

The present work spreads over a period of three years during which a pre-post design of study was used on a sample of 82 bureaucrats. They were given training in behavioural inputs for effective functioning and were exposed to human relationship skills, interpersonal communication, motivation, team building, transactional analysis, Johari window and effective leadership. They were tested on entry of the one week training programme (conducted by the author on LEAD questionnaire). After training was imparted, again on the last day they were tested on LEAD self instrument. The results showed that the highest scores were obtained on the participative style (Style II), and least on the delegatory style (style IV). As a result of training there was a significant increment in the mean score on Style IV and reduction on Style III which is highly nurturant. The more pronounced change was observed in leadership effectiveness.

KEYWORDS: Administrative Personnel/PX; Interprofessional Relations; Leadership; Training Support; Human; Male; Female; Adult; Middle Age

References: 9