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JIAAP Abstracts 1991

   In traditional societies, family and religion are the strongest forces maintaining tradition. Exposure to such modernizing forces as schools, factories, urbanization, etc, is expected to engender individualization in the person. Based on survey data from a stratified random sample in the states of Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal and Karnataka, the emergence of Independence from traditional control, (INTRCON), is identified in this study. INTROCON is disaggregated on the bases of age, household income, religion, education, and sex and location of dwelling. A model based on regression analysis results is presented.

KEYWORDS: Religion and Psychology; Cross-Cultural Comparison; Self Concept; Interpersonal Relations; Ethnic Groups/PX; Family/PX; Socilization; Social Behavior; Psychoanalytic Theory; Sampling Studies; Regression Analysis; India/EH; Human

References: 10

‘Adequate compensation’ and ‘care for employees’ safety’ as dimensions of organisational climate : perceptions of management experts.

Kunhumoideen UA; Karunes S, Centre for Management Studies, Indian Institute of Technology New Delhi

1991 Jan-Jul; 17(1-2): 13-19

A questionnaire was administered and discussions were conducted among management experts to understand their perceptions about the impact of each item, under the two Human Resource Management dimensions ‘Adequate Compensation’, and ‘Care for Employees’ Safety’, on organisational climate. The study was ocnducted by splitting the management experts under two groups. 34 senior personnel executives from 29 industries (Group A) and 32 academic professors/consultants from 10 institutions (Group B) responded. The data was analysed to obtain averages and variances. The two means were compared using ‘t’ tests to know whether the difference in perceptions are significant or not. The difference in perceptions about the impact of most of the items or organizational climate were found insignificant.

KEYWORDS: Organizational Culture; Perception; managed Care Programs/OG; Worker’s Compensation; Safety; Risk Management; Total Quality Management/OG; Questionnaires; Analysis of Variance; Human

References: 24

Ethics and the mass media : a field study.

Malhotra P; Vohra SS, Department of Applied Psychology, University of Delhi, South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi-110021

1991 Jan-Jul; 17(1-2): 21-29

An exploratory field study was carried out to compare media professionals and consumers of the media on media ethics. The sample comprised of 40 subjects, with 20 in each group. An equal number of males were included in both groups to permit inter and intra-group comparisons. An interview schedule consisting of six incidents was developed by the investigator to elicit spontaneous ethical judgements about media performance. The incidents tapped different aspects of media ethics, including protection of privacy of public figures, sensationalism, objectivity in reporting and suppression of information. The differences in reactions of the respondents (media grouops vs. non-media groupmales vs. females) were analyzed using the Chi-square test or the Fisher’s exact probability test, wherever they were required. Results indicated a few significant differences between media and non-media groups as well as between males and females partially substantiating the hypotheses. However, in some cases, media and non-media groups appeared to be in agreement regarding ethics in the mass media. Similarly, males and females also showed similar reactions to some questions, which indicates universality of ethical judgements. Considering the turmoil of our times, the media needs to re-examine its social and ethical responsibilities once again. In this context, the present field study may provide a useful starting point for further investigations.

KEYWORDS: Ethics, professional; Mass Media; Decision Making; Public Relations/TD; Social Responsibility; Newspapers; Conflict (Psychology); Questionnaires; Chi-Square Distribution; Human

References: 17

Factors affecting sexual satifaction in married life.

Kumar P; Makwana SM, Dept. of Psychology, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujrat-388120

1991 Jan-Jul; 17(1-2): 31-34

The present study attempts to examine the effect of certain factors-gender difference, occupational status and marital duration-on sexual satisfaction in marriage. The sample comprised 80 married couples. The results showed that marital duration independently and also in combination with occupational status significantly affected sexual satisfaction of married couples. The other two factors, gender difference and occupational status however did not show any meaningful relationship with marital sexual satisfaction.

KEYWORDS: Marriage/PX; Personal Satisfaction; Sex Behavior/PX; Conflict (Psychology); Sampling Studies; Sex Factors; India; Human; Male; Female

References: 13

Self-concept of children of leprosy patients.

Antony J; Broota A, Department of Psychology University of Delhi, Delhi-110007

1991 Jan-Jul; 17(1-2): 35-39

Twenty children of leprosy patients living with parents and thirty institutionalized children of leprosy patients were compared with a matched group of thirty children of normal parents on the variable of self-concept. Two open-ended probes "Tell us about yourself" and "Tell us about what you are not", were used. Results indicate that children of leprosy patients have negative self-concept as compared to children of normal parents. Institutionalized children of leprosy patients have more negative self-concept as compared to children to leprosy patients living with parents.

KEYWORDS: Child Psychology; Leprosy; Self Concept; Child of Impaired Parents; Comparative Study; India; Human; Male; Female; Child

References: 12

Penis-shaft perception of koro patients

Chowdhury AN, Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Calcutta

1991 Jan-Jul; 17(1-2): 41-44

Koro is an acute anxiety reaction in which the perception of decreased penis length because of intra abdominal traction is the main feature. This study attempts to explore the penis shaft perception of the Koro patients by a grapho-motor projective test-DAPT (Draw-a-penis test). This controlled DAPT investigation shows that Koro Patients perceived reduced volumetric penis-shaft dimension, viz. less ‘maximum shaft-width’ than controls. This perceptual deviation in penis-shaft image is discussed in relation to their Koro Vulnerability.

KEYWORDS: Koro/PX; Penis; Body Image; Anxiety/PX; Sampling Studies; India; Human; Male

References: 12

Life attitude profile of in-patient and non-patient alcoholics.

Vadra P; Husain A, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh

1991 Jan-Jul; 17(1-2): 45-49

The main objective of the present study was to determine the significance of difference between the mean scores of non-patient (N is equal to 50) and in-patient (N is equal to 50) alcoholics on Life Attitude Profile (LAP) and various factors of LAP. Non-patient alcoholics scored significantly higher than the in-patient alcoholics on LAP. Significant differences were found between non-patient and in-patient alcoholics on various factors of LAP-Life purpose, Life Control, existential Vacuum, Death Acceptance, Will to Meaning and Goal Seeking.

KEYWORDS: Adaptation, Psychological; Alcoholism/PX; Life Style; Life Change Events; Quality of Life; Sampling Studies; Attitude; Psychometry; India; Comparative Study; Human; Adult

References: 5

The college classroom and non-traditional students : Employing effective adult learning principles and practices.

Khan Z; Donlevy JG, State University of New York Rockland Community College, Suffern

1991 Jan-Jul; 17(1-2): 51-53

Working with non-traditional college students in flexible scheduling formats places additionl demands on the college instructor. Instructors need to attend to classroom atmosphere and methodology issues rooted in effective adult learning principles and practices. This is especially ture when working with older returning students. Suggestions for practitioners include student collaboration, participation, critical reflection and flexible evaluation and assessment.

KEYWORDS: Education, Continuing/MT; Teaching/MT; Models, Educational; Learning; Education, Continuing; Psychology, Educational; India; Human

References: 11

Learning styles of Indian managers : Some explorations.

Ahmad S; Varghese AR, Xavier Institute of Management, Bhubaneswar

1991 Jan-Jul; 17(1-2): 55-59

The present study attempts to validate aspects of Kolb’s Experiential Learning theory in the Indian context as well as examine the relationship between learning style mismatch and job satisfaction. The sample consisted of 103 management students and 68 practicing managers. The results point to some interesting findings regarding the learning style in Indian Management Professionals. Indian Manageers were found to be more oriented towards the concerete and active ends of the concerete/abstract and the active/reflective dimensions as compared to Kolb’s sample of their western counterparts. It was found that the functional areas within the field of management were dominated by the people with the particular style profile demanded by the area. Finally a significant relationship emerged between a match of leaming style with the work area and job satisfaction.

KEYWORDS: Learning/CL; Leadership; Psychology, Educational; Educational Measurement; Power (Psychology); Organizational Innovation; Psychometrics; India; Human

References: 13

Age, gender and religious differences in motivational patterns among adolescents.

Aijaz A; Kureshi A, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh

1991 Jan-Jul; 17(1-2): 61-65

The study was aimed at assessing level of aspiration and approval motive in relation to differences of age, sex and religion. The sample (N is equal to 200) comprised students of class IX to XII classes from various schools/colleges at Aligarn, their average age being 14 to 19 years. There were 100 Muslim (50 boys and 50 girls) and 100 Hindu (50 boys and 50 girls) subjects. Differences between groups on Level of Aspiration and Approval Motive were determined by means of critical ratios. Some major findings of the study were : Hindu subjects had a significantly higher score on Apporval Motive than Muslim subjects. - Older Hindu as well as older Muslim subjects scored significantly higher of Level of Aspiration. - Hindu girls, as compared to Hindu boys, scored significantly higher on Level of Aspiration.

KEYWORDS: Motivation Students/PX; Adolescent Psychology; Achievement; Cross-Cultural Comparison; Culture; Religion and Psychology; Psychometrics; India/EH; Human; Adolescence; Male; Female

References: 8

Ego identity attainment among teachers in relation to their sex and marital status.

Pandey S; Helode RD, Ravishankar University, Raipur

1991 Jan-Jul; 17(1-2): 67-70

The present study was aimed at assessing the main and interaction effects of sex and marital status upon the ego-identity attainment of college/University teachers. As such Ego Identity Measure (EIM) was administered on a stratified random sample of 120 teachers and the scores were subjected to 2 x 2 (fixed model) ANOVA treatment. The results revealed that (1) as hypothised male teachers showed significantly greater magnitude of ego-identity attainment than the female teachers(P<.05)that (ii) contrary to the hypothesis married teachers did not show significant difference with their unmarried counterparts with respect to ego identity attainment(P>.01) however, that (iii) as expected married male teachers showed the highest magnitude of ego identity attainment but contrary to the expectation the unmarried female teachers failed to show the lowest magnitude of ego identity attainment, inspite of the fact, that the interaction effect was found statistically significant (P<.01).

KEYWORDS: Ego; Identification (Psychology); Teaching; Marital Status; Sex Factors; Marriage/PX; Psychometrics; India; Human; Male; Female; Adult

References: 9

Rehabilitation of drug addicts.

Khanna R, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak

1991 Jan-Jul; 17(1-2): 71-75

Two hundred and forty undergraduates were administered the altruism and empathy questionnaires and thereafter individually induced with the positive, neutral, or negative mood states and requested to help drug addicts by contributing suggestions to rehabilitate them. In an A (males and females) x B (high and low altruiism) x C (high and low empathy) x D (different mood states) factorial design, effects of different variables werre determined on the dependent variable of time taken by Ss to write down suggestions. The B and C effects were found to be significant implying that the high sltruistic and high empathic Ss devoted significantly more time to write suggestions than did the low altruistic and low empathic Ss, respectively. A need to inculcate altruism and empathy, that are conducive to the rehabilitation of drug addicts, is emphasized.

KEYWORDS: Substance-Related Disorders/RH; Substance-Related Disorders/PX; Psychoses, Substance-Induced/TH; Questionnaires; Altruism; Empathy; Psychometrics; India; Human; Adolescence; Male; Female

References: 18

N-autonomy in children of working mothers belonging to different profession.

Taluja H; Zainuddin R, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh

1991 Jan-Jul; 17(1-2): 77-80

The present study was a aimed at finding out the significance of difference between mean n-autonomy scores of children of mothers belonging to four professions (nurses, lecturers, teachers and doctors). The t-test was used to test the significance of difference between mean autonomy scores of six comparison groups based on four different professions. Results disclosed significant difference between children of nurses and children of teachers. The children of teachers have been found to be more autonomous. This was interpreted in terms of teachers’ strong desire for upward social mobility.

KEYWORDS: Child Psychology; Adolescent Psychology; Mothers; Child Behavior; Dependency (Psychology); Women, Working; Psychological Tests; Psychometrics; India; Comparative Study; Human; Child; Adolescence

References: 11

Effect of occupational stress on job satisfaction.

Bharati T; Nagarathnamma B; Viswanatha Reddy S, Department of Psychology,
S.V. University, Tirupati

1991 Jan-Jul; 17(1-2): 81-85

The present study was designed to investigate whether occupational stress have any relationship with and effect on job satisfaction. The total sample consisted of 90 clerical cadre employees of three different organizations-business, service and common weal. The S’s occupational stress and job satisfaction were assessed with the help of Srivastava and Singh’s Occupational Stress Index’ and Kanungo’s Job Satisfaction Scale’. The obtained data were analysed in terms of ‘t’ test, Chi-square test’, Coefficient of correlation and Duncan’s Range test. Occupational stress was found to be significantly related to job satisfaction-the greater the stresses the lower the satisfaction.

KEYWORDS: Stress, Psychological/CO; Job Satisfaction; Burnout, Professional/PX; Occupational Diseases/PX; Sampling Studies; Regression Analysis; Psychometrics; India; Human; Male; Female

References: 17

Hyperreactivity and essential hypertension : a behavioural approach.

Basu R, Department of Applied Psychology, University of Calcutta, Calcutta

1991 Jan-Jul; 17(1-2): 87-92

This study examined the hypothesis of hyperreactivity component in essential hypertension. The results unequivocally confirm that hyperreactivity can be conferred as ‘independent’ risk factor of essential hypertension. It is also found that hyperreactivity on the individual can be adequately controlled by behavioural methods and such treatment results in a significant reduction of baseline mean blood pressure of the patients with essential hypertension considered in this study.

KEYWORDS: Hypertension/PX; Hypertension/ET; Psychophysiology; Sympathetic Nervous System/PH; Blood Pressure/PH; Risk Factors; Hypertension/TH; Analysis of Variance; Behavior Therapy; Human; India

References: 10

Moderating effect of mode of coping on the relationship between occupational stress and performance.

Rivastava AK, Department of Psychology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi

1991 Jan-Jul; 17(1-2): 93-98

The present study examined the moderating effect of approach and avoidance modes of coping on the relationship of occupational stress and job performance. The sample comprised of 352 employees operating in a locomotive workshop. Significant inverse relationship was obtained between perceived occupational stress and performance. Further analysis yielded that approach mode of coping attenuates whereas avoidance mode of coping intensifies the inverse relationship between occupational stress and job performance.

KEYWORDS: Adaptation, Psychological/PH; Occupational Diseases/PX; Burnout, Professional/PX; Psychometrics; Stress, Psychological; Regression Analysis; Efficiency, Organizational; India; Human

References: 21

A note on the use of socio-economic status scale in research.

Venkatramaiah SR; Sreenivasa Rao K , Department of Home Science, S.V. University, Tirupati

1991 Jan-Jul; 17(1-2): 99-100

KEYWORDS: Socioeconomic Factors; Research; Prospective Studies; India; Human

References: 5